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As a result of recent changes to the pensions regime, there are many more choices available to people when it comes to using the money they have saved for retirement. However, if you want to make the most of these options, it is of course vital that you have put aside sufficient funds during your working life.
While retirement may not currently be high on your priority list, you should take steps now to ensure that you will have the freedom and the means to achieve a comfortable retirement when the time comes. You could spend a third of your life as a retired person, and by taking action now, you can help to make this period as financially secure as possible.
Your retirement planning strategy will be determined by a number of factors, including your age and the number of years before retirement. However, there are some other key issues to consider:
Individuals who reach State Pension age after 5 April 2016 receive a flat-rate pension, worth £155.65 per week where they have 35 years of national insurance contributions.
Those who reach State Pension age before 6 April 2016 will continue to claim their basic State Pension (plus any additional state pension that they may be entitled to). The basic State Pension in 2016/17 is £119.30 a week. For a full State Pension, it was necessary to have made 30 years of national insurance contributions (NICs). You may also have an entitlement to some additional State Pension. However, as this may be worth less than the new flat-rate pension, there is an opportunity to make additional NICs - please ask us for details and note that this option is only available until 5 April 2017.
To receive a State Pension forecast phone the Future Pension Centre on 0345 3000 168.
There are two kinds of employer pension scheme, into which you and your employer may make contributions. A defined benefit scheme pays a retirement income related to the amount of your earnings, while a defined contribution scheme instead reflects the amount invested and the underlying investment fund performance. In both cases, you will have access to tax-free cash as well as to the actual pension.
The impact of the stock market downturn in the 2000s was one key factor that resulted in many final salary schemes being underfunded and a decision was taken by many firms to close such defined benefit schemes. Many experts consider that this type of scheme will cease to exist over the next few years. Where firms do provide employer pensions these are now almost always defined contribution schemes.
The amount of personal contributions that can qualify for tax relief is limited to the greater of £3,600 and total UK relevant earnings, subject to scheme rules.
In order to encourage more people to save for their retirement, the Government has been gradually phasing in compulsory workplace pensions for eligible workers. Under the scheme, all employers will have to enrol automatically all eligible workers into a qualifying pension scheme. There will ultimately be a minimum overall contribution rate of 8% of each employee's qualifying earnings, of which at least 3% must come from the employer. The balance is made up of employees' contributions and associated tax relief.
Relying on the State Pension will not be adequate for a comfortable retirement, so if you are not in a good employer scheme, you should make your own arrangements.
To qualify for income tax relief, investments in personal pensions are limited to the greater of £3,600 and the amount of your UK relevant earnings, but subject also to the annual allowance. The annual allowance is normally £40,000 but due to changes to the annual allowance system from April 2016, some individuals may escape a tax charge if annual contributions in 2015/16 were below £80,000 and significant contributions were made before 9 July. As from April 2016 the £40,000 allowance will be tapered for individuals who have both income over £110,000 and adjusted annual income (their income plus their own and employer's pension contributions) over £150,000. For every £2 of adjusted income over £150,000, an individual's annual allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £10,000.
Where pension savings in any of the last three years' pension input periods (PIPs) were less than the annual allowance, the 'unused relief' is brought forward, but you must have been a pension scheme member during a tax year to bring forward unused relief from that year. The unused relief for any particular year must be used within three years.
Gary has not made any contribution into his pension policy so far in 2016/17.
Gary has unused annual allowances of £30,000 from 2013/14, £5,000 from 2014/15 and £20,000 from 2015/16 (total £55,000). Gary's income is less than £110,000.
Gary's maximum pension investment is therefore set at £95,000 (£40,000 plus £55,000) for his 2016/17 PIP. He needs to make a pension contribution of £70,000 (current year allowance £40,000 and £30,000 unused relief from 2013/14) in order to avoid the loss of the relief brought forward from 2013/14.
If contributions are paid in excess of the annual allowance, a charge - the annual allowance charge - is payable. The effect of the annual allowance charge is to claw back all tax relief on premiums in excess of the maximum. Where the charge exceeds £2,000, arrangements can be made for the charge to be paid by the pension trustees and recovered by adjustment to policy benefits.
Premiums on personal pension policies are payable net of basic rate tax relief at source, with any appropriate higher or additional rate relief usually being claimed via the PAYE code or self assessment Tax Return.
Tori will earn £60,000 in 2016/17. She will invest £12,500 into her personal pension policy. She is entitled to the basic personal allowance and has no other income.
Tori will pay her pension provider a premium, net of basic rate tax relief of £10,000. She is also entitled to higher rate tax relief on the gross premium, amounting to £2,500.
As Tori is an employee, we can ask HMRC to give the relief through her PAYE code. Otherwise, we would claim in Tori's 2017 Tax Return. Thus the net cost to Tori of a £12,500 contribution to her pension policy is just £7,500.
Where total pension savings exceed the £1m lifetime allowance at retirement (and fixed, primary or enhanced protection is not available) a tax charge arises:
The lifetime allowance was £1.25m in 2015/16. If appropriate, you can apply to HMRC for protection from the reduction to £1m.
Taxpayers have always had the option of taking a tax-free lump sum of 25% of the fund value and purchasing an annuity with the remaining fund, or opting for income drawdown where limits generally applied. An annuity is taxable income in the year of receipt.
Similarly any monies received from the income drawdown fund are taxable income in the year of receipt.
Since 6 April 2015, the ability to take a tax-free lump sum and a lifetime annuity remains but some of the previous restrictions on a lifetime annuity have been removed, allowing more choice on the type of annuity taken out.
There is now total freedom to access a pension fund from the age of 55. Access to the fund may be achieved in one of two ways:
When an allocation of funds into a flexi-access account is made the member typically will take the opportunity of taking a tax-free lump sum from the fund.
The person will then decide how much or how little to take from the flexi-access account. Any amounts that are taken will count as taxable income in the year of receipt.
Access to some or all of a pension fund without first allocating to a flexi-access account can be achieved by taking an uncrystallised funds pension lump sum.
The tax effect will be:
Although they might not suit everyone, there are at least two ways to boost your retirement finances through your home. The first option is down-sizing - selling your current home and buying something cheaper, to release value tied up in your property for other purposes. 'Equity release' might be an alternative approach. However, you should discuss all of the implications with us and your other financial advisers before deciding whether this is a suitable avenue to take.